Haikou, situating at the north
of Hainan island, is the capital of Hainan Province
of the People's Republic of China. The approximate
population is 830,192 (2006), therefore by far,
it is the largest city on the island.
Haikou originally served as a port for Qiongshan,
the ancient administrative capital of Hainan island.
In the 13th century Haikou was fortified as a
military post governed by the Ming dynasty (1368¨C1644).
The port is located in the west of Nandu river
outlet. Qiongshan was opened as a foreign trading
city because of the Treaty of Tianjin (1858).
In 1926, Haikou overtook Qiongshan in population
,and after the 1930s it was declared a separate
Since 1949, Haikou has maintained
its position as Hainan's main port, handling more
than half of the island's trade. It has replaced
Qiongshan as the island's administrative capital.
Haikou got the capital of Hainan Province, founded
The Old Haikou (the oldest area of
Haikou) was mostly built by the rich Chinese from
the mainland and some overseas Chinese who returned
to their homeland. The buildings'style
mixed with Portuguese, French and Southeast Asian
style. These streets used to be divided into areas
for medicine, silk and clothing, agricultural
products, stationery, etc.
Various projects are take measures
to preserve these historical buildings.
Haikou has an area of 2,304.84
square kilometers.It is situated on the north
coast of Hainan Island, facing the Leizhou Peninsula,
across the Hainan Strait (15 km wide).The district
of Haidian island is separated from the main part
of Haikou by the Nandu river. It is the northernmost
part of Haikou, and there are three bridges to
access Haidian Island , the largest one is Haikou
Century Bridge that connects Guomao district with
The city of Haikou is on the northern edge of
the torrid zone, and is part of the monsoon tropical
zone. April to October is the active period for
tropical storms and typhoons; most occur between
August and September.May to October is the rainy
season with most rainfall coming in September.
Average rainfall (mm):
Haikou's air quality
index is the second highest one in China, which
is only second to Kunming.
The groundwater is of international
standard, and is classified as mineral water.
In 1995, the Haikou city government
began an initiative to improve residents'
living quality .With the approval of the World
Health Organization, and China's Ministry of Health,
a ten-point plan was undertaken to address such
- Community health care
- Vaccinations for children
- Waste recycling
- Green belts and urban trees
- Environmentally friendly construction
- Public toilets
- Sewage treatment
- Noise pollution
By 2004, the city had established
43 new community health service centers covering
85 percent of the population. The initiative has
increased the size of Haikou's green spaces to
2,000 hectares, with trees lining 40 percent of
its roads. Noise pollution has dropped from 61.1db
to 58.2db. 300 public toilets have been built.
All industrial effluents, industrial waste water
and solid waste, and all live sewage, is now processed
through centralized treatment centers, and is
disposed of without environmental impact. These
improvements and others have increased life expectancy
in Haikou to 78.26 years.
Haikou city has also built 163
model ecological villages. Now, over 200,000 villagers
in 933 villages have tap water in their homes.
The GDP per capita was $3,573 USD in 2008, ranked
number 43 among 659 Chinese cities.
Haikou exports great quantities
of agricultural produce and livestock. There is
a small amount of industry, including canning,
textiles, rice hulling, and light industry.
Haikou received 4.11 million tourists in 2002,
up 7.99 percent from 2001. The city earned approximately
three billion yuan (361 million US dollars) from
the tourism industry during that period, up 11
percent from the previous year.
- Longhua District
- Xiuying District
- Qiongshan District
- Meilan District